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极度洁癖、挑剔又追求完美处女座与强迫症有什么关系

文章来源:贵阳中医脑康医院预约挂号

  说到处女座,大家都会情不自禁地想到一些特质:极度洁癖、挑剔又追求完美。

  无论是洁癖还是完美主义,若是发生在处女座自己身上,旁人看着一个完美、干净的人,端的是赏心悦目。

  然而当这种特质同样被处女座套到周围人的头上要求对方一起做到时,便有了被黑出翔的处女座。

  有人说:处女座的完美主义非得把自己逼出强迫症不可!于是,完美主义在不经意间就与强迫症扯上了关系。

强迫症北京

  然而,完美主义就是强迫症吗?

  先来说说:什么是完美主义?

  在讨论完美主义与强迫症那不得不说的关系之前,咱们得先捋清楚:什么是完美主义?

  完美主义是一种个性特征,表现在做事注意细节、追求完美。

  过去人们把完美主义当做一种不良的个性特征,认为完美主义会导致挫折感、抑郁、强迫、拖延等。

  然而到了近期,研究者对完美主义者有了新的认识,提倡将完美主义划分为适应性和非适应性两种。

  适应性完美主义:开心满足的

  适应性完美主义是指为了提升自己的素质或境遇,会对工作生活设置较高的目标,并能面对实现目标过程中的挫败,一旦获得成就就能感到满足。

  这一部分人虽然有些过于认真,甚至有些偏执,但他们能与自己、与环境、与他人友好相处,适应能力强,生活中也不缺乏开心和成就感。

  非适应性完美主义:自虐焦虑的

  非适应性完美主义则是指在外力驱动下,对工作、生活设置不现实的、僵化的高标准,对错误及失败过度关注,失败后还会进行过度严厉的自我批评。

  更糟糕的是,即使是获得成功,也不能使他们感到满足。

  这一类人适应能力较差,常常会出现焦虑、抑郁、强迫的症状或疾病,甚至还会出现自杀意念。

  所以这类完美主义者可以说是天下间对自己最狠毒、最严格、最会贬低和虐待自己的人,会活得很累。

  然而更可怕的是,他们不仅用这些标准来衡量自己,还会同时用来衡量自己的配偶、子女、朋友等,造成家庭不和、友谊破裂,进入恶性循环。

  再来说说:什么是强迫症?

  说完了完美主义,咱们需要来了解一下什么是强迫症。

  简单地描述一下官方定义,强迫症是以强迫观念、强迫行为等症状为主要表现的一类神经官能症。

  强迫症包括了几类主要表现:

  强迫观念

  强迫观念是以刻板形式反复侵入患者意识领域的念头、声像或冲动。

  简单来说,就是一件事儿在脑海里反反复复不停地出现,你想,或是不想,它都在那儿,由不得你不想。

  比如临出门总是忐忑:我煤气关了没?门窗关了没?钥匙带了没?于是就这样反反复复不停地想,根本控制不住自己的大脑。

  甚至会出现某种强烈的、难以控制的行为意向,比如控制不住地想摔手机,甚至摔孩子。

  或者明明知道思考这个问题是毫无意义的,还是要忍不住去浪费自己的脑细胞。

  强迫行为

  强迫行为是指反复出现的刻板行为或者仪式性动作。

  简单来说,就是这事儿你嘴上说着不想,但是你的身体还是会很诚实。

  比如临出门因为产生强迫观念,总要反反复复检查煤气关了没、门窗关了没、钥匙带了没,严重的时候甚至可以检查几十遍。

  当然还有大众比较熟知的反复洗手、反复洗衣服,哪怕洗到手破,也根本停不下来。

  强迫性迟缓

  这一类患者表面上看起来压根没有任何重复的表现,但他们会停留在一个简单的动作上思考很久,患者在思考行动的步骤是否适当,等待动作执行完美的感觉,很少有焦虑。

  20岁左右的青年最容易患强迫症

  强迫症多发病于青春期,发病的平均年龄在20岁左右。男性的发病高峰年龄是青春期,而女性则多在20-24岁之间。男女患病率相近。

  强迫症多发生在高智力和高社会阶层的人群,家庭中对宗教、道德的过度要求使患者过度追求完美。

  他们习惯于控制思想情欲不外露,所以发病后往往不让别人知晓,平均在发病7年左右才去求医。

  真正的强迫症:根本停不下来

  许多朋友在日常生活中常常会有这样的困惑:

  我看着邮箱里的邮件没清完就不舒服,我是不是强迫症?

  我看着音量的设置不是5的倍数就不舒服,我是不是强迫症?

  我看着微信里有未读信息就不舒服,非要把它读了,我是不是强迫症?

  我每次在餐厅里吃完饭临走的时候总要反复检查东西是不是带齐了,这是不是强迫症?

  ……

  诸如此类的问题还有很多很多。想要判断自己的这些症状是强迫症,还是仅仅属于强迫倾向,需要看是否满足以下两点:

  患者知道这些都是不必要的、多余的,虽然想要控制,却始终无力抵抗,根本停不下来;

  这些症状并不是偶发的,而是持续了3个月以上,已经影响到社交与工作。

  如果说,你看到邮箱没清完不舒服,但不清也不至于没法工作,这仅仅是一种强迫倾向。

  或者说像曹格那样每次演唱之前都要亲吻舞台,他也并非是不亲吻就不舒服斯基,也不是亲了一次又一次根本停不下来,仅仅是通过一种自己可控的行为,给予自己信心和祝福,也不属于强迫症。

  非适应性完美主义者易患强迫症

  当然最后,我们还是要把咱们最开始的那个问题说清楚:完美主义就是强迫症吗?

  平时大家脑子里都会偶尔冒出一些奇怪的想法或是冲动,但通常都不当回事,但非适应性完美主义者和强迫症患者作为天下间对自己最严格的人,当然不会放过这一闪念。

  于是就会对这种情况过度重视、过度自责,并想以自己的主观意志来消除和控制它,反而导致这些思维内容出现的频度增加,然后更加自责、更加焦虑,陷入恶性循环。

  所以,结论出来了,完美主义不是强迫症,前者是个性特点,后者是个疾病。

  但是完美主义者有好有坏,并不是所有的完美主义者都会患上强迫症,但非适应性完美主义者就很容易中招。

  所以当你看过本文,发现自己已经躺枪,是个对自己最狠毒的人,那么还是学会欣赏自己,凡事降格以求吧。

  如果你发现自己有强迫症而且症状还不轻,那就早点去就诊吧!服药和心理治疗并进,能减轻很多痛苦,让你早日摆脱强迫症的“压迫”。

  关于强迫症Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder,你还想了解更多吗?下面贵州精神科医院 贵州脑康中医院精神科,贵州强迫症治疗医院给大家推荐一篇国外的文献阅读,希望您对强迫症有更多的了解。

  Aug. 17, 2000 -- A little obsessive and compulsive behavior may be a good thing. It helps us make sure the iron is really off before we leave the house, or brush our teeth after every meal. But for those with diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder, life can become a nightmare of intrusive thoughts and ritualistic and repetitive actions.

  Treating patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder is not easy. Many feel that the best therapy is a type of talking therapy called cognitive behavior therapy. Sometimes, if patients don't respond or respond only partially, antidepressants -- usually selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), like Prozac -- are prescribed.

  St. John's wort, or Hypericum perforatum, an herbal medication, has antidepressant activity. It also appears to work pretty much the same way as the SSRI antidepressants. So researchers decided to give it a try in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  And guess what? It worked, at least as well as SSRIs, according to a report in the August issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Almost half of the people in a small trial group claimed to have significant improvement in their symptoms after taking one of the active ingredients of St. John's wort for three months.

  "It appears that people responded favorably, but ... it's still too early to use it with any degree of certainty," cautions study author Kenneth A. Kobak, PhD. "I wouldn't go out and assume it is an effective treatment at this point, and I wouldn't use it in place of standard treatments that are out there that have been thoroughly tested," However, he writes that he and his colleague on the study are sufficiently encouraged by the findings to conduct a larger and better-designed trial of St. John's wort for obsessive-compulsive treatment.

  Kobak, who is with the Dean Foundation for Health Research and Education in Middleton, Wis., and co-investigator Leslie Taylor, MD, treated a group of 12 obsessive-compulsive patients with hypericin, which is the active ingredient in St. John's wort. Behavior was monitored weekly by both the patients and their physicians.

  Obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved notably within a week after treatment began and continued to improve throughout the trial. About 40% of the patients were found to be "much improved" or "very much improved" by both the clinicians and the patients themselves. About half indicated that their symptoms were "minimally improved," and only one patient was found to be unchanged.

  The treatment was well tolerated. Three patients reported diarrhea and two reported restless sleep. One patient left the trial early because of a rash. Interestingly, "this treatment appears less effective for people who fail to respond to ... SSRIs," Kobak tells WebMD.

  "It's neat that some other things other than standard medications are popping up that might be helpful," says Michael Jenike, MD, of Harvard Medical School, noting that about one-third of patients do not respond well to currently available medications.

  In his experience, Jenike has had patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder who have used St. John's wort. "I haven't seen any dramatic successes, but most of the people I use it for are sicker patients who have failed other drugs. In their study, the ones that had already failed other drugs do not do very well." Jenike is also the director of the scientific advisory board of the Obsessive-Compulsive Foundation, which supported this study.

  He adds: "People may ask, 'Why not use [St. John's wort], since it probably has fewer side effects, [and] is safer and less difficult to take than SSRIs?' My answer is that this report is really the only evidence that we have that St. John's wort might do anything [for obsessive-compulsive disorder]. The other drugs have been carefully studied, so they would still be the [drugs to choose]. But if this shows [in larger studies] it works as well as the other drugs, people might eventually pick St. John's wort over the SSRIs."

  Patients sometimes take herbal compounds in addition to prescribed medications, and often without their physicians' knowledge, says Kobak. He urges patients to proceed with caution, because issues such as standardization of medications, contraindications, and drug interactionshave not yet been well examined for many herbal medicines. He adds that there is also little information about any interactions between St. John's wort and other medications. "At a minimum," Kobak tells WebMD, "always let your physician know you are taking any herbal compounds."

  温馨提示:当你意识到自己已经被强迫症纠缠时,一定要主动寻求心理咨询师和心理医生的帮助,及早控制住这个“害人精”,生活才能从新步入正轨。贵州的中医院哪家冶强迫症最好?贵州脑康中医院是一所真正具有特色中医的中医院,专业治疗失眠症,抑郁症、强迫症医院的翘楚。贵州脑康精神病医院可以免费在线咨询哦,还可以在线挂号。

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